This tutorial shows you how to use the simple and powerful query language of
ECIS. With the Query Language functionality you can take full advantage of
the advanced capabilities of the tool to refine and improve the accuracy of your searches.
Use Boolean operators
Boolean operators allow you to search for documents that contain exactly the words you
are looking for. Boolean operators include AND, ANDNOT, OR, and parentheses. If no boolean
operator is specified, ECIS uses AND by default.
Documents found must contain all words joined by the AND operator. For example, to find
documents that contain the words "picasso" and "prevert", enter: picasso AND prevert
Documents found cannot contain the word that follows the "ANDNOT"
example, to find documents that contain the word "flaubert", but not the word
"proust", enter: flaubert ANDNOT proust
Documents found must contain at least one of the words joined by OR. For example, to find
documents that contain the word "monet" or the word "renoir", enter: monet OR renoir
- ( )
Parentheses are used to group portions of Boolean queries together for
queries. For example, to find documents that contain the word "fruit" and either
the word "banana" or the word "apple", enter: fruit
AND (banana OR apple)
Use proximity operators
Proximity operators look for documents including search terms within close proximity
of each other.
- NEAR / NEAR(distance)
Documents found must contain the two words joined by the NEAR operator within a certain
distance and in any order. For example, to find documents that mention the phrase
"Chaco Canyon" and the word "Park" in any order, but with a maximum
distance of 10 words, enter: "Chaco Canyon" NEAR Park.
If the word Park must be exactly 2 words from "Chaco canyon", specify the
distance between parentheses. In the example, enter: "Chaco
Canyon" NEAR(2) Park.
- WITHIN / WITHIN(distance)
Documents found must contain the two words joined by the WITHIN operator within a certain
distance and in a given order. For example, to find documents that mention first the word
"Katchina" before "Hopi" with a maximum distance of 10 words, enter: Katchina WITHIN Hopi.
To specify the distance between the words, use WITHIN(distance). For example, Katchina WITHIN(4) Hopi.
Proximity operators are not universally supported. The sources are then questioned with the operator AND by default. The results are filtered in
ECIS to answer the search criteria.
You must apply the following rules:
- In the search area, enter the words and operators separated by a space
- If you need to use any of these operator words as search words in a query, you must
place them in quotation marks "".
- The search is not case-sensitive. The case of words in the retrieved documents is
ignored. For example, the search dog AND Dalmatians is equal to the search DOG
and dalmatians (see advanced search filtering)
- To search for a phrase including several words, use double quotes. For example, "knowledge
The following syntax is applicable to any individual attribute and allows you to
define complex search criteria from within the standard search area.
The most general form of a search criteria is:
[attribute name]:[operator]:[attribute value]
A search is composed if one or more criteria separated by a slash:
[first criteria] / [second criteria] / [third criteria]
Attribute names are listed next to each source in the domain page. They are also available in the advanced search page.
You can also use any arbitrary name for your search. The system
automatically adjuts the search to the capabilities of the sources selected and notifies you when a given source is not available.
Attribute values are complex boolean expressions. Enter your keywords combined with boolean or proximity operators.
Available operators are listed below:
||attribute contains a sub-string that matches the value (default)
||title:CONTAINS:Chaco canyon music
title:Chaco canyon music
||attribute is equal to the string
||attribute is less than the numerical value
||attribute is less than or equal to the numerical value
||attribute is equal to the numerical value
||attribute is greater than or equal to the numerical value
||attribute is superior to the numerical value<
||date is after day
||date is before day
To search for a specific date, use the international standard date notation (ISO 8601): YYYY-MM-DD where YYYY is the year in the usual Gregorian calendar, MM is the month of the year between 01 (January) and 12 (December), and DD is the day of the month between 01 and 31. For example, the fourth day of February in the year 1995 is written in the standard notation as 1995-02-04.
author:equals:flaubert or stendhal / title:contains:(madame AND bovary) OR (chartreuse AND parme)
body:contains:flaubert or stendhal / title:contains:(madame AND bovary) OR (chartreuse AND parme)
title:contains:"find good paying jobs" / date:after:2002-09-01
title:contains:Tolkien or (Lord and rings) / price:<=:20